Are there 13 months in a year? A secret month omitted from calendars as far back as 45 B.C?

The 13th Month Theory will attempt to answer this question. You will find in this article a brief overview of current and past calendar systems, a mathematical equation supporting the theory that a 13th month may currently exist, but was likely omitted and forgotten in centuries long past. So stick around for a while. It’s all conjecture, but it gets interesting towards the end….

The Gregorian Calendar is the one of the most commonly used calendars in the world. There are 12 months in the Gregorian Calendar as listed below:

January

Februrary

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

However, January wasn’t always the first month in a calendar year.

In fact, on the Julian Calendar, which was calculated and organized by Julius Ceasar but implemented after his death in 45 B.C., March was listed as the first month of the year.

April was the second month,

May was third,

June was fourth,

July was fifth ,

August was the sixth month (formerly known under its Greek name; s*xtiliss),

September was the seventh month,

October the eighth month of the year,

November the ninth month,

and December was the tenth month of the year.

The “Sept” in September refers to the number 7 in latin, the “Oct” in October refers to the number 8, the “Nov” in November refers to the number 9, and the “DEC” in December corresponds to the prefix of the number 10 in latin.

So how did the latter months come to be known as the 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th, instead of the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th, respectively?

On the Julian calendar, the months January and February were the last two months of the year and not the first and the second, unlike the Gregorian Calendar.

A Gregorian year is approximately 365 days, with a leap year every 4 years [that cannot be divided by 100 or 400]. A Julian Calendar is 365.25 days a year, with a leap year added every four years in February.

The Julian Calendar was a commonly used calendar until Pope Gregory XIII approved an updated version of the Julian Calendar in 1584 - referred to as the Gregorian Calendar.

You may wonder how this all ties in to having a 13th month, or a “missing” month in a standard Lunar year.

Under our current calendar, there are twelve months. The definition of a month is the period in which the moon leaves one point, to orbit around the Earth in a gravitational cycle that would cause it to arrive at the origional point again. Generally a lunar cycle (or month) averages 27.9 days. A Synodic month has 29 days. Since the dawn of humanity, humans have used the moon to calculate the seasons and time.

To begin, here’s a bit of Q. and A. (Trust me, this is going somewhere)

Q. How many days are in a week?

A.) There are 7 days in a week.

Q. How many weeks are in a month?

A.) There are 4 weeks in a month (no more, no less).

Q. What is 7 times 4?

A.) 28.

If there are seven days in a week, and only 4 weeks in a month (no more, no less), then that means a month is only 28 days. However, the Gregorian Calendar shows a total of 12 months, 7 of which have 31 days, 4 with 30, and 1 month of the year, February, uses 28 days except during a leap year. How do we reconcile a 13 month calendar to 365 days in a year?

Q.) If we change all the months of the year to 28 days, what happens to the left over days that gave us 30 or 31 days in a month?

Here’s where the extra month comes in. We’ll do it as a math equation to make it easier…

Remember when I told you that there were 7 months in the Gregorian Calendar that uses 31 days instead of 28? 4 months that use 30? And 1 that uses 28?

IF 31 [days] times 7 [months] = 217 days.

30 days times 4 [months] = 120 days.

28 days times 1 [month] = 28 days

When we add all of the days together, we’ll have a sum of : 365 days!

Now if we divide 365 [days] into 28 [days] the result is 13. 0357214 months in a year (I’ll explain how we lose that .03 margin a bit later).

Not only would we have an equal number of months, but each day of the week will fall on the same day each year, as well as the holidays. The question is why didn’t the Julian or Gregorian Calendar follow the 28 day rule in the first place?

It’s possible that a thirteen month Calendar existed before the change by Julius Ceasar in 46 B.C. For example, the Mayans used a 260 day calendar. If you do the math this equates to a total of ten, 28 day months. But in early Europe, superstition may have played a role in why 13 months were avoided.

If you look at astrology at the time, even the 13th astrological sign had been removed. This sign would have correlated with the missing 13th month.

The astrological zodiac signs begin in March (formerly the first month of the year), with Aries. Because of the omitted 13th month and its correlating sign, Ophiucius… Aries begins on the 21st of March and has a 31 day period just like the month it is supposed to represent. The other astrological signs in our calendar year are the same.

The sun signs represent all of the stars in Earth’s celestial belt. These are constellations that include the sun at some point in its ecliptical field. There are 13 zodiac astrological signs:

Aries, Taurus, Pisces, Leo, Virgo, Scorpius, Saggitarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, Cancer, and Ophiucius.

Ophiuchus is the only one not counted as a zodiac sign, even though it falls in the belt. Ophiuchus is represented by a man with a serpent around his waist. He is thought to represent the Greek God of Health and Medicine: Asclepius.

His image is also thought to represent the image of Adam in battle with the Serpent/Satan. Which could also shed some light on superstitions surrounding this Zodiac sign and why it is not in use. Whatever the reason, at some point in history an extra month was omitted by government and religious leaders and the world forgot.

If you do the math, it adds up.

Q. When I multiply 28 days times 13 months, there are only 364 days.

A.) There’s a mathematical reason why. The reason a year is only 364 days under the 13 month calendar, is because a full day is based on the amount of time it takes Earth to rotate on its axis. However, contrary to what is commonly held belief, a full day is not 24 hours, but 23.934. If we calculate a year based on the exact amount of time it takes the Earth to rotate, we get an approximate answer of 364 days.

The reason we have 365 days under a 12 month calendar is because our clocks are designed to calculate 24 hour days and not its approximate number of 23.934 hours a day. This results in an additional 2 hours a month on our calendar. 2 [hours] times 12 [months]= 24 [hours]. An additional day a year, resulting in 365 days in a 12 month calendar.

I have provided a few math equations to prove this point. I will first calculate a year based on the Earth’s true rotation at 23.934 hours in a day, followed by a calculation based on 24 hours. It looks harder than what’s actually there. But if you read it, you’ll get it right away.

It is likely that in 46 BC when Julius Ceasar made the Julian Calendar, and when Pope Gregory XIII approved the Gregorian Calendar, astrologists were unable to accurately estimate Earth’s rotation at 23.934, and so, opted to round the number to 24, thus making it easier to make a calendar with 12 months, the mishap causing an additional day every four or so years.

The math:

There are 60 minutes in 1 hour.

There are a total of 1380 minutes in 23 hours.

1380 minutes = 23 hours

+ 56 minutes = 1436 minutes in a full day.

1436 x 28 days = 40208 [minutes] = a month

(4.091 [seconds] * 28= 114.548 seconds )

114.548 [seconds] - 60 [seconds] = 54.548 [seconds] =

add the addition 60 seconds as one minute to 40208 + 1 minute = 402099

M = 402099 and 54.548 seconds.

402099 / 28 days = 1436.055

1436.055 / 60 = 23.934.25 [HOURS] in a day

23.934 * 7 = 167.538 [hours] in a week. (OR simply 23.934 * 28 = 670.152 [HOURS])

167.538 * 4 = 670.152 [hours] in a month.

670.152 * 13 = 8711.976 [hours] in a year.

8711.976 / 364 = 23.934 hours = 1 day

based on the accurate 23.934 hours in a day, there are only 364 days in a year.

——————————————————————————-

ON A 24 HOUR DAY CALENDAR:

60 [= 1 minute] * 24 hours = 1440 MINUTES in a day

1440 * 31 = 44640 * 7 [months] = 312480 [minutes per year]

1440 * 30 = 43200 * 4 [months]= 172800 [minutes p.y]

1440 * 28 = 40320 * 1 [month] = 40320 [minutes p.y]

add MINUTES TOTAL IN A YEAR for each = 525600

525600 / 60 [MINUTES] = 8760 HOURS [in a year]

8760 MINUTES / 24 [hours] = 365 DAYS [A YEAR]

(8760 minutes divided by 24 hours calculates 365 days a year).

BECAUSE THERE IS AN EXCESS OF 2 HOURS per month due to rounding off to 24 hours from 23.94, we end up with a leap

year.

2 [hours] * 12 [months] = 24 hours a whole additional day.

From Wikipedia.org - Gregorian Calendar reference:

No. Name Days

1 January 31

2 February 28 or 29

3 March 31

4 April 30

5 May 31

6 June 30

7 July 31

8 August 31

9 September 30

10 October 31

11 November 30

12 December 31

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Just FYI, I posted this article on my web site

http://theoryuniverse.com - feel free to visit my web site, make an account, and post your own theories! Yes it's not just for science related theories, but social, political, or other theories as well!

- E

**Posted By: **
Wednesday, August 13th 2008 at 3:40PM

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