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~ "Just A Few Techie Definitions" ~ Section 'D' (7552 hits)


~ "Just A Few Techie Definitions" ~ Section 'D'
Gregory V. Boulware, Esq.

Ya’ateeh, A'HO, Shalom Alaikum, As Salaam Alaikum, Hotep, Hola, Konichiwa, Privyet, Hallo, Ni Hao, Anyoung Haseyo - Hello Family!

With the realization of how long/big the 'Academia Posting' of "Terminus*Infinitus," the series "Just A Few Techie Definitions" will continue in its planned alphabetical offerings from 'B to Z.' Many students also do not have "The One Thing I Know Is..." 'How To Understand Information Technology' as not being required reading and/or the inability to acquire the paperback book, these postings will be of great necessity...it is a pleasure to be able to provide this "Free Education and Self-Help" academic assistance.

Peace and Love,



"It is my commitment, my profound propensity to indefatigably inscribe throughout the annals of time and in the name of education, and Information, my contribution(s) to the practice of "Free Education and Self-Help" Publication(s) For One And All - Across The Globe And Beyond!"



“TheOneThingIKnow Is…”
GregoryV.Boulware, Esq.ASB/CS-CP
#BoulwareBooks #Education #Information #SelfHelp

"Terminus*Infinitus": Beyond A to Z
Gregory V. Boulware, Esq.


~ "Just A Few Techie Definitions" ~ Section 'D'


A class of database applications that look for hidden patterns in a group of data that can be used to predict future behavior. For example, datamining software can help retail companies find customers with common interests. The term is commonly misused to describe software that presents data in new ways. True data mining software doesn't just change the presentation, but actually discovers previously unknown relationships among the data.

Datamining is popular in the science and mathematical fields but also is utilized increasingly by marketers trying to distill useful consumer data from Web sites.

Data Modeling:

The analysis of data objects and their relationships to other data objects. Datamodeling is often the first step in database design and object-oriented programming as the designers first create a conceptual model of how data items relate to each other. Data modeling involves a progression from conceptual model to logical model to physical schema.

Data Warehouse:

Abbreviated DW, a collection of data designed to support management decision making. Data warehouses contain a wide variety of data that present a coherent picture of business conditions at a single point in time.
Development of a data warehouse includes development of systems to extract data from operating systems plus installation of a warehouse database system that provides managers flexible access to the data.

The term data warehousing generally refers to the combination of many different databases across an entire enterprise. Contrast with datamart.


(1) Distinct pieces of information usually formatted in a special way. All software is divided into two general categories: data and programs. Programs are collections of instructions for manipulating data.
Data can exist in a variety of forms -- as numbers or text on pieces of paper,as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts stored in a person's mind. Strictly speaking, data is the plural of datum, a single piece of information. In practice, however, people used at a as both the singular and plural form of the word.

(2) The term data is often used to distinguish binary machine-readable information from textual human-readable information. For example, some applications make a distinction between data files (files that contain binary data) and textfiles (files that contain ASCII data).

(3) Indatabase management systems, data files are the files that store the data base information, whereas other files,such as index files and data dictionaries, store administrative information, known as metadata.


(1) Short for Distributed Computing Environment, a suite of technology services developed by The Open Group for creating distributed applications that run on different platforms.

DCE services include:
•Remote Procedure Calls (RPC)

•Security Service

•Directory Service

•Time Service

•Threads Service

•Distributed File Service DCE is a popular choice for very large systems that require robust security and fault tolerance.
(2) Short for Data Communications Equipment, a device thatcommunicates with a Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) device in
RS-232C communications.

See DTE for more information.


Short for Data Definition Language, DDL is a computer language that is used to define data structures - In Database Management Systems (DBMS).
... /TERM/D/DDL.html

Short for Data Definition Language, DDL is a computer language that is used to define data structures. In Database Management Systems (DBMS),it is used to specify a database scheme as a set of definitions (expressed in DDL). In SQL, the Data Definition Language (DDL) allows you to create, alter, and destroy database objects.

PHP: (Personal HomePage Programming/Protocol)

PHP is responsible for powering an extraordinarily large segment of the Web, driving significant parts of many of the world's most trafficked websites, among them Facebook and Yahoo. Facebook's reliance on PHP is so great that they've even gone so far as to create Hip-hop for PHP, a utility that converts PHP code into highly optimized C++, resulting in the ability of the Facebook API tier to double its performance while reducing CPU usage.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) Attacks The Problem:

There are several tools being distributed on compromised computers that allow vandals to remotely control those computers to launch attacks rendering a victim's computers inoperable. The attacks of several prominent Websites during the week of February 6, 12,2000 used these Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attack tools. The nature of the attack is such that it is very difficult to stop and next to impossible to prevent single-handedly. Some sites have experienced several days of down time while trying to restore services.

The core problem is the existence of the compromised computers used to create the attack.

The computers used in the attacks are compromised several ways including remote attacks on vulnerable, defective software and taking advantage of computers whose owners have loaded remotely controllable software such as remote control Trojans and IRCbots. Some reports have put the number of compromised systems in the thousands.

Many of the systems are compromised because patches for software defects that were reported and fixed months ago are never installed, because anti-virus tools are not kept up to date, and because the computer owners give away control of their computers by indiscriminately running unknown programs.

Recent studies have indicated these attacks may be wide spread and under reported. The basis of the attack is to overload a victim's computer resources by flooding them with traffic. This is done by commanding multiple compromised systems to send high rate soft raffic. In addition, the traffic is often formulated in such away that it consumes resources at abnormal rates.

Halting an attack is extremely complicated and time consuming for several reasons:

The flood of traffic will likely shut down the victim’s network making it harder for them to diagnose the problem, collect enough data to determine the sources involved, and communicate effectively.

The upstream network provider may fail from the amount of traffic also increasing the isolation.

With some types of attacks, the victim maybe able to filter the traffic by its source with a firewall. But there are issues with the number of filters that can be put in place, how long it takes to install the filters, and what happens when the filters block traffic which the organization needs to perform its business. In addition, even with filters, there will be performance degradation because of the processing they require....sometimes to the point of making them ineffective as a defensive tool. If the attack overloads the upstream provider, then filtering is useless.

The victim may see traffic from hundreds or even thousands of computers. The traffic maybe coming from compromised computers all over the world. To stop the attack requires tracing each different address back to the network and system from which it originated. Then the responsible organization must be contacted and asked to help shut down and/or clean the offending system. This can obviously be challenging across organizational and national boundaries. The tools allow a vandal to automate attacks times and frequencies so they may come and go before they can be traced.

If being attacked from a hundred different organizations is bad, imagine not knowing which hundred they are.
Many of the DDOS tools allow the attacking machines to forge their source address and change them in a random manner. This may make it appear as though the attack is originating from tens of thousands of different computers when it actually may only be ten. This makes it impossible for an organization to single-handedly

a) know where the traffic is coming from or

b) filter the packets. The attack must be traced step by step from the victim back to the source through all the intermediary ISPs. This requires a large amount of cooperation and technical help from the ISPs who may be in different countries, minimally staffed, and minimally motivated to help.

In some attacks, the actual traffic isn't even coming from the attacking computers. It’s coming from networks which are configured to allow themselves to be used as traffic amplifiers. In those cases, it is the traffic feeding the remote networks that has forged source addresses. This means the back-tracking must start on some one else's network which increases the complications even more. And again, the attacker may vary the attack time and frequency to parry the victim and avoid capture. Once the source organizations are identified, the victim must ask them one by one to clean or shut down a compromised computer. That computer may serve a critical function for the source organization. It may be their email server for example. The source organization may not be staffed on weekends or at night. They may speak a different language. They may not have the authority or desire to help. The staff may be unfamiliar with the attack, system administration, network topology, or any number of things that may delay shutting down the attacking computer. If there are hundreds of computers involved in the attack, a victim can't spend too much time huntingdown each one before the recovery efforts are measured in days.

What you Can Do?

If you are responsible for a Unix computer, the following basic Unix administration practices should be followed:

Follow R.U.N.S.A.F.E. guidelines. Download and run test programs from the National Infrastructure Protection Center to test for the most common DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack tools on Sun and Linux boxes. If you are responsible for a Windows computer, the following basic Windows operating precautions should be followed:

Follow R.U.N.S.A.F.E. guidelines. These precautions will help prevent your computer from being used in a DDOS attack. If you know of compromised systems or systems that are improperly administered that may result in a compromise, please notify the people in charge of those systems so that the problems can be cleared up. This will make the net safer for everyone.

Further Information:

An excellent collection of DDOS information is available on David Dittrich's site.

Further information on Paul Ferguson's site including lots of Cisco specific information and a wonderful cartoon CERT Advisory on Distributed Denial of Service Attacks CERT October 2001 Update on DoS trends (pdf) Sun Security Bulletins Sun Recommended Patches Security Resources for System Administrators (and operators) of Linux, Windows, and Generic Unix Computers Wtrinscan-a windows program that will scan for Wintrinoo Remote Intrusion Detector(RID)- a unix program that will scan for a variety of DDOS tools

Note 1: One could obviously argue that other issues are the core problems. Among them being:

Defective computer products that are vulnerable to compromise.

Computer products that are vulnerable to attacks Unrestricted freedom of movement in the Internet The jerks doing the attacks.
However, barring invulnerable computer products, restricted Internet access, or human behavioral controls I believe the best results will be obtained, at least at the organizational level, by focusing on the compromised computers used to perform the attack. Besides, if our computers are compromised, we'd better be worried about them for a lot of reasons besides their possible use in a DDOS attack. The compromised computers used in these attacks are privately owned computers whose owners assume their communications are private, their data intact, and any accounts accessed from the computers secure. If the computer is compromised enough to allow a DDOS tool, all those assumptions are false.

Other technical approaches to the problem are primarily effective only when widely implemented by the majority of Internet connected sites. These include egress filtering for spoof prevention and anti-smurf configurations. Egress filtering is a measure to prevent an attacker from being able to use forged packets which makes the attack more difficult to track down. It does nothing to prevent an attack. For it to be successful, most, if not all, Internet connected networks worldwide must implement it. Anti-smurf configurations similarly must be implemented in the majority of Internet connected networks to prevent them from being used as attack amplifiers.

Another technical solution to the problem is traffic limiting. Basically, this consists of putting limits on the types of traffic allowed into a network. This works better for some attacks than others. It requires high end router features and may put significant load on the router doing the filtering. This may cause performance problems similar to the attack itself. Another problem area is the network link itself which may become saturated with traffic. To address this, upstream providers would also have to rate limit traffic which presents problems in administration, coordination, and identification of appropriate traffic levels for various traffic types at various points in the network.

Deploy: (v.)

To install, test and implement a computer system or application. The term can be used to refer to any installation and testing, such as setting up a new network in an enterprise, to installing a serverfarm, to implementing a new application over a distributed computing network.
The word deploy has roots as a military term, used to describe the placement of equipment and troops in a battlefield.
Develop a Computer Deployment Plan That Includes Security Issues This guide from the CERT Coordination Center looks at security issues involved informulating a deployment plan.


Refers to the reproduction and transmission of sound stored in a digital format. This includes CDs as well as any sound files stored on a computer. In contrast, the telephone system (but not ISDN) is based on an analog representation of sound. In sound recording and reproduction systems, digital audio refers to a digital representation of the audio wave form for processing, storage or transmission. When analog soundwaves are stored in digital form, each digital audio file can be decomposed into a series of samples.


An electric component that conducts electric current in only one direction, functioning as a one-way valve. Diodes typically are made from semi conductor materials such as silicon, germanium or selenium and are uses as voltage regulators, signal rectifiers, oscillators and signal modulators/demodulators.

In computer equipment, diodes are commonly used to emit light by passing a current through it, as in light emitting diodes (LEDs).


A technique in which data is written to two duplicate disks simultaneously. This way if one of the disk drives fails, the system can instantly switch to the other disk without any loss of data or service. Diskmirroring is used commonly in on-line database systems where it's critical that the data be accessible at all times.


(1) Short for Dynamic Link Library, a library of executable functions or data that can be used by a Windows application. Typically, a DLL provides one or more particular functions and a program accesses the functions by creating either a static or dynamic link to the DLL. Astatic link remains constant during program execution while a dynamic link is created by the program as needed. DLLs can also contain just data. DLL files usually end with the extension.

dll,exe. drv,or.fon.

A DLL can be used by several applications at the same time. Some DLLs are provided with the Windows operating system and available for any Windows application. Other DLLs are written for a particular application and are loaded with the application.

(2) Short for Delay Locked Loop, Delay-Locked Loop(DLL) supports high-bandwidth data rates between devices. These DLLs are circuits that provide zero propagation delay, low-clock skew between out put clock signals throughout a device, and advanced clock domain control. These dedicated DLLs can be used to implement several circuits that improve and simplify system level design.


(1) Short for Domain Name System (or Service or Server), an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The Internet however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name,therefore, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name www.example.com might translate to

The DNS system is, in fact, its own network. If one DNS server doesn't know how to translate a particular domain name, it asks another one, and soon, until the correct IP address is returned.

(2) Short for digital nervous system, a term coined by Bill Gates to describe a network of personal computers that make it easier to obtain and understand information.


Short for Document Object Model, the specification for how objects in a Webpage (text, images, headers, links, etc.) are represented.

The DOM defines what attributes are associated with each object, and how the objects and attributes can be manipulated. DynamicHTML(DHTML) relies on the DOM to dynamically change the appearance of Webpages after they have been downloaded to auser's browser.

Unfortunately, the two leading browsers--Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer-use different DOMs.This is one reason why their respective implementations of DHTML are so different. Both companies have submitted their DOMs to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for standardization, which now has the daunting task of specifying a standard DOM without alienating either of the browser giants. The W3C's DOMs pecification will support both HTML and XML.


(1) A group of computers and devices on a network that are administered as a unit with common rules and procedures. Within the Internet, domains are defined by the IP address. All devices sharing a common part of the IP address are said to be in the same domain.

(2) In database technology, domain refers to the description of an attribute's allowed values. The physical description is a set of values the attribute can have, and the semantic, or logical, description is the meaning of the attribute.


Abbreviation of dots per inch, which indicates the resolution of images; the more dots per inch, the higher the resolution. A common resolution for laser printers is 600 dots per inch. This means 600 dots across and 600dots down, so there are 360,000 dots per square inch.


Short for digital signal processing, which refers to manipulating analog information, such as sound or photographs that has been converted into a digital form. DSP also implies the use of a data compression technique.

When used as a noun, DSP stands for digital signal processor, a special type of coprocessor designed for performing the mathematics involved in DSP. Most DSPs are programmable, which means that they can be used for manipulating different types of information, including sound, images, and video.


(1) See digital satellite system.

(2) See decision support system.

DVI: (pronounced as separate letters)

(1) Short for Digital Visual Interface, a digital interface standard created by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG) to convert analog signals into digital signals to accommodate both analog and digital monitors. Data is transmitted using the transition minimized differential signaling (TMDS) protocol, providing a digital signal from the PC's graphics sub-system to the display. The standard specifies a single plug and connect or that encompass both the new digital and legacy VGA interfaces, as well as a digital-only plug connector. DVI handles bandwidths in excess of 160MHz and thus support sUXGA and HDTV with a single set of links. Higher resolutions can be supported with a dual set of links.

(2) Short for Digital Video Interactive, a now-defunct technology developed by General Electric that enables a computer to store and display moving video images like those on television. The most difficult aspect of displaying TV-like images on a computer is overcoming the fact that each frame requires an immense amount of storage. A single frame can require up to 2MB (megabytes) of storage. Televisions display 30 frames per second, which can quickly exhaust a computer's mass storage resources. It is also difficult to transfer so much data to a display screen at a rate of 30 frames per second.
DVI overcomes these problems by using specialized processors to compress and decompress the data. DVI is a hardware-only codec (compression/decompression) technology. A competing hardware codec, which has become much more popular, is MPEG. Intel has developed a software version of the DVI algorithms, which it markets under the name "Indeo."

(3) Short for Device Independent, a file format used by the "TeX" typography system.


A database sub-table that selects and sorts records as specified by a question.It will automatically reflect changes in its underlying tables and, when modified, can make changes in those tables.


Acronym for enterprise application integration. EAI is the unrestricted sharing of data and business processes throughout the networked applications or data sources in an organization. Early software programs in areas such as inventory control, human resources, sales automation and data base management were designed to run independently, with no interaction between the systems. They were custom built in the technology of the day for aspecific need being addressed and were of ten proprietary systems. As enterprises grow and recognize the need for their information and applications to have the ability to be transferred across and shared between systems, companies are investing in EAI in order to streamline processes and keep all the elements of the enterprise interconnected.

There are four major categories of EAI:

•Database linking:

databases share information and duplicate in formation as needed.

•Application linking:

the enterprise shares business processes and data between two or more applications.


data is extracted from a variety of data sources and channeled into a specific database for analysis.

•Common virtual system:

the pinnacle of EAI; all aspects of enterprise computing are tied together so that they appear as a unified application.

Next: Section "E"

Til Next Time...




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Posted By: Gregory V. Boulware, Esq.
Sunday, January 20th 2019 at 3:56PM
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Brother Doctor Gregory V. Boulware, Esq. "Terminus*Infinitus": Beyond A to Z caught my attention and Yes, I will take a look. Thanks for this post.

Sunday, January 20th 2019 at 4:52PM
Deacon Ron Gray

Yo Good Brother Deacon Ron Gray! ...You're very welcomed! Hope you all enjoy the read!

Peace and Love,


~ "SANKOFA" the "MAAFA" ~

"Terminus*Infinitus": Beyond A to Z (complete) - In It's Entireity:



Sunday, July 21st 2019 at 10:35PM
Gregory V. Boulware, Esq.

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Monday, August 5th 2019 at 11:17AM
Gregory V. Boulware, Esq.
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